The chief strategic objective in the opening is the most effective and harmonious development of all the pieces.
DON'T move a piece twice in the opening.
DON'T exchange a piece that is developed for one that is not developed.
DON'T exchange without good reason.
DON'T block the path of development of your pieces.
DON'T block either center pawn.
SEVENTH RULE: P--Y TO GET CONTROL OF THE CENTER.
1. What is the center? The four squares in the center of the board, e4, d4, e5
& d5 ("Little Center") and the sixteen central squares ("Enlarged Center")
2. What is the value of the center? It is the region of greatest mobility.
3. What is meant by control of the center? The ability to place pieces on vital
squares without having them captured.
4. How do we get control of the center? .....The very basis of the chess.
ELEVENTH: The disadvantage of pawn weaknesses is not so much the pawn themselves but the passive positioning of the pieces, which result in order to defend them.
TWELFTH: Exchanges usually ease cramped positions.
THIRTEENTH: 'Object-Lesson' in 'Maroczy Bind' position, which arises when white, has pawns at c4 & e4 and black a pawn at d6. White's space advantage was achieved at the cost of dark-squared weaknesses and failure to defend results in loss.
FOURTEENTH: When you have a Q-side pawn majority, assuming it is mobile and not under attack from your opponent's pieces, you can play for the ending and exchange pieces with confidence.
FIFTEENTH: Technique of a K-side attack involves the opening of files into the enemy position.
SIXTEENTH: Modern Strategy - Final break through is not made until all the
SEVENTEENTH: Play well positionally and the tactical fruits will come.
EIGHTEENTH: Seek combination chances based upon your opponent's king position or any unguarded pieces he may have. In the opening white's problem is to preserve his initial superiority whereas black's problem is to secure equality. Therefore, white attacks while black defends.
Avoid over-hasty attacks before completing development. Take sufficient
care when calculating. When the advantage is of an enduring type, Le., weak
enemy pawns and squares, you can afford to strengthen your position to the
maximum before beginning the final assault. When the opponent's forces
are diverted to the defense of a weakness, the attacker can then make decisive
thrusts on the other side of the board.
Many games are lost by tactical blunders. Many would be saved if the
player took the PRECAUTION, before making EVERY move, of looking around
the board for any tactical possibilities present (a) in the position as it stands, and
(b) in the position, which will occur after he has moved.
Books: duMonfs 'The Basis of Combination in Chess' and Reinfeld's'1001
If you have few opportunities for reading, try in your own games to practice
looking briefly around each move for combination chances based upon your
opponents king's position or any unguarded pieces he may have.
THE ART OF DEFENSE
The art of defense is one of the most difficult in chess; not only because of
the intrinsic care and avoidance of error required in defensive positions, but also,
because, psychologically, the inexperienced defender is liable to PANIC, LOSE
HEART, or BECOME INPATIENT.
It is necessary to make every move count when a sacrificial attack is in
progress. If a king is in the center and the central files can be opened, all sorts of
combinations become possible. Masters do not reject cramped positions as such;
but, generally speaking, an active game, a pawn down is much preferable to a
position with level material where you are bound to the defense of a positional
Play well positionally and the tactical fruits will come.
In rook and pawn endings the most important principal of all is to keep your rook
In the Ruy Lopez, white's ON usually aims to reach d5 or f5.
The "ALTERNATION PRINCIPAL" - When your opponents minor pieces are
driven into a defensive position use your superior mobility to transfer the attack to the
In the type of pawn formation which often arises from the KI type of opening
where black plays ... c5, white's weakness lies in the fact that the base of his pawn
chain at c4 is vulnerable to attack, while black's base at e7 is much more easily
Boleshavsky's variation of the Sicilian is nowadays one of the most popular of
all, for experience has shown that black's backward d-pawn involves no difficulties. By
inducing white to play a4, black can make it possible for himself to post his a-knight on
this strong square where it supports the coming ... d5; and; ties down the white queen
Concentrate on applying sound general principles and you will rarely go wrong.
develop rapidly, castle early, centralize your pieces. The idea is not to trick your opponent but to keep on strengthening your position.
According to Bobby Fischer, four ingredients are essential to success at chess:
2. Think ahead:
Give no quarter and ask for none.
3. Learn from your losses Record your games, including the offhand ones, and
study them later to try to find your mistakes - if you don't already know what they
were. You are not likely to lose two games the same way, and you will also retain
a permanent record of your progress.
The basic principle of force is decisive when all other things are equal.
THE PLAYER WHO IS AHEAD IN MATERIAL SHOULD TRADE AS MANY PIECES AS POSSIBLE.
THE PLAYER WHO IS BEHIND SHOULD TRY TO AVOID EXCHANGES.
It is essential at all times not to fall behind in material.
NOTES: BASIC CHESS ENDINGSby Reuben Fine
David McKay Co [(1941), Reprint 6/67]
FIFTEEN RULES FOR THE ENDGAME
CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY
There are three points, which are so fundamental that they must be always born in
PCA's Selected Principles from the ABC's of Chess
by Bruce Pandolfini
Play for the initiative. If you already have it, maintain it. If you don't seize it.
Cut your losses. If you must lose material, lose as little as possible. If one of your pieces is trapped, try to sell ifs life dearly. Look for desperadoes (opportunities to gain some material and/or inflict damage.
If you blunder, don't give up fighting. Compose yourself to avoid additional mistakes. Stay in the game. After getting the advantage, your opponent may relax and let you escape. If this fails, you can always resign.
Never play an unsound move; hoping your opponent will overlook your threat and the correct reply, unless you have a hopeless position. In that case, you have little to lose.
Rely on your own powers. If you can't see the point of your opponent's move, assume there isn't any. Don't play with fear. It's not as much fun ..
Don't sacrifice without good cause.
When you can't determine whether to accept or decline sacrifice, accept it. Either you'll be right or wrong, and learn something.
Attack in numbers. Don't rely on just one or two pieces.
Look for double attacks, and try to play moves with multiple points.
Don't make careless pawn moves. In the opening, move as few pawns as necessary to complete your development.
Try to develop your bishops before blocking them in by moving a center pawn just one square, unless circumstances require otherwise or leave you no choice.
Develop your pieces quickly, preferably toward the center (especially knights, which often are "grim" on the rim.
Don't waste time or moves. Try to develop a new piece on each turn. Don't move a piece twice in the opening without good reason. Amass your forces for concerted purpose.
Develop during exchanges. Avoid exchanges that lose time or build your opponent's game. Don't solve his problems for him.
To exploit an advantage in development, attack. Hold back, and the advantage might pass to your opponent.
Do not bring out your queen early, unless the natural course of play necessitates it.
Develop rooks to open files, or files likely to open. If such placements are not possible are not possible or advantageous, consider a file-opening pawn advance. Look to transfer rooks desirously from one wing to the other.
Prepare to castle early, especially for king safety and to connect the rooks. Don't let your king get caught in the center. Be leery of opening the center with your king still in it. Don't castle if it places your king in even greater danger.
Try to prevent your opponent's king from castling. Keep it trapped in the center, particularly in open positions.
After castling, don't move the pawns in front of your king without specific reason.
Don't capture pinned pieces until you can benefit from doing so. If possible, try to attack them again, especially with pawns.
Look for tactics along lines controlled by your bishops, especially when the enemy bishops are missing or out of position.
Try to avoid early exchanges of bishops for knights, unless such trades are clearly to your advantage.
To strengthen control of a file, double your major pieces (rooks and/or queen) on it. If you can, force the enemy rooks out of position.
ln cases where you have only one bishop, try to improve its scope by placing your pawns on squares of the opposite color. This also insures that squares of both colors can be guarded.
Trade when ahead in material or when under attack, unless you have a sound reason for doing otherwise. Avoid trades when behind in material or when attacking.
29. Choose a plan and stay with it. Change it only if you should or must. But don't be ridiculously flexible.
If cramped, free your game by exchanging material. If your opponent is cramped, deter him from making freeing advances and trades.
Trade bad minor pieces for good ones. Avoid situations that could force you to surrender active pieces for inactive ones.
Study the games of the greats (Garry Kasparov, Vishy Anand, et al)
Play as often as you can. Have fun.
Chess Lessonsby GM Jeremy Silman
Chess life 9/95 p. 24
Chess life 12/95 p.19
Chess life 1/96 p. 14
Chess Life 2/96p. 13
Chess Life 4/96p. 35
However, never follow them blindly!
Chess Life 9/96p. 13
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